STUDIES & PUBLICATIONS IN ENGLISH

NEW! Qualifications Frameworks as an Instrument of Public Policy for Lifelong Learning
Education based on learning outcomes, transparent principles for the award of diplomas and certificates, the possibility to gain qualifications outside of formal education, and better adaptation of employee competences to labour market requirements – experts from 15 countries discussed the benefits of implementing qualifications frameworks at the international conference “Qualifications Frameworks as an Instrument of Public Policy for Lifelong Learning”. The conference was organised by the Educational Research Institute, where work is on-going on a new qualifications system and the Polish Qualifications Framework (PQF), together with the National Team of Bologna Experts, working with the Foundation for the Development of the Education System. The patrons of the event were government departments dealing with the groundwork on implementing qualifications frameworks in Poland – the Ministry of National Education and Ministry of Science and Higher Education, together with the Ministry of Labour and Social Policy

CEDEFOP - Necessary Conditions for ECVET Implementation (2012)
The European credit system for vocational education and training (ECVET) is a powerful tool for increasing cross-border cooperation in education and training. Its adoption will make it possible for all citizens to use their qualifications and learning outcomes in any new learning or working experience across the European Union. Cedefop has been monitoring implementation of ECVET in the Member States and its reports of 2010 and 2011 show how much progress has been achieved. But there is now a growing feeling that common guidelines are needed to help formulate strategy. In this booklet Cedefop considers the conditions and measures that Member States need to have in place in 2012 if they are to fully implement the 2009 ECVET recommendation. The booklet has been prepared in close cooperation with the European Commission, the members of the ECVET users group, and supporting organisations such as the ECVET secretariat and the network of European agencies for lifelong learning.

European Commission/ECVET User’s Group – Using ECVET to Support Lifelong Learning. Annotated Expamples of How ECVET Can Be Used to Support Lifelong Learning (2012)
Part III complements the series of guidance documents and explanatory notes (Parts I & II) which constitute the
ECVET Users’ Guide . It presents the possibilities of how ECVET could be used to support the recognition of learning outcomes in a lifelong learning perspective:
- Why is ECVET relevant for lifelong learning policies
- (Non-)Formal learning while working using ECVET
- ECVET and learners’ change of pathways
- ECVET to facilitate updating workers’ qualifications
- ECVET and validation of non-formal and informal learning
- ECVET and recognition between different qualification systems and levels


CEDEFOP – International Qualifications: What They Mean for Citizens (2012)
A new Cedefop study opens a discussion on international qualifications: what they are, how they are managed, and how they may affect national qualifications and standards as well as the common EU tools for vocational education and training.
Not all diplomas and certificates are awarded by public authorities within a national education and training system. International qualifications, awarded by social partner organisations or multinational companies, now cover fields as diverse as construction, ICT, welding, sports, transport, financial services and hairdressing. So what does this trend mean for education and training standards and for the wider recognition of qualifications? Cedefop’s study aims to launch the discussion on international qualifications, whose reach and popularity affect two European initiatives: the European qualifications framework (EQF) and the European classification of skills/competences, qualifications and occupations (ESCO).


Finnish National Board of Education – FINECVET as a Pioneer. From Piloting to Implementation (2012)
This publication is produced by the
FINECVET project. FINECVET is a national project, supported by the Finnish National Board of Education piloting the credit transfer system for vocational education and training. The project tests ECVET’s suitability for Finnish vocational qualifications, further vocational qualifications and specialist vocational qualifications. The FINECVET project, supported by the Finnish National Board of Education, aims at piloting the application of ECVET in the Finnish vocational education and training system for transnational mobility. The project has had two previous phases, the first starting already in December 2004. The third phase began in September 2009 and ended in March 2012. In the final phase, the FINECVET project focused on the ECVET process, documentation and quality assurance and aimed to make ECVET understandable, in particular for teachers.

European Commission – Using ECVET for Geographical Mobility. Part II of the ECVET User’s Guide (2011)
This part II of the ‘ECVET Users’ Guide’ explains the role of ECVET in facilitating the transnational mobility of learners. It presents some possible scenarios for using ECVET in this context. It is part of a series of documents that constitute the
ECVET Users’ Guide . It seeks to encourage ECVET mobility through explaining the added value and the potential of using ECVET for mobility. The European credit system for vocational education and training (ECVET) helps individuals who are trying to acquire a VET qualification to move between countries and gain access to lifelong learning.

CEDEFOP Working paper n. 14 - The development of ECVET in Europe (2011)
This paper focuses on strategies for implementing the European credit system for vocational education and training (ECVET) in Member States of the European Union, two countries of the European Economic Area (Liechtenstein and Norway) and two candidate countries (former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Turkey).
Developing these strategies brings greater clarity to objectives and assets. European learning mobility remains an important driver for ECVET implementation, although no longer the only one. In national and regional contexts, further drivers for ECVET development are improving recognition, validation and permeability within education and training. Monitoring shows that ECVET is building on existing assets: favourable national institutional contexts, continuing VET reform, existing credit systems and arrangements, and legal provision.
Fifteen countries have set up ECVET coordination points, the level of activities has increased across all countries and detailed roadmaps for ECVET implementation are emerging: in short, there is visible progress.

Using Learning Outcomes - European Qualifications Framework Series: Note 4 (2011)
The ‘learning outcomes’ approach shifts the emphasis from the duration of learning and the institution where it takes place to the actual learning and the knowledge, skills and competences that have been or should be acquired through the learning process. Despite the fact that it is considered to be relatively new; the ‘learning outcomes’ approach has been applied in various countries, in various sectors and for various purposes. This note was written in response to the high level of interest in sharing experiences at the European level regarding how the ‘learning outcomes’ approach is used in the implementation of the EQF. It is widely acknowledged that there is not a common approach in using learning outcomes; however, a common understanding of the main concepts and principles would facilitate the implementation of common European tools such as the EQF, ECVET, and ECTS, which are all based on learning outcomes

CEDEFOP Working paper n. 10 - The development of ECVET in Europe (2010)
The first CEDEFOP overview of the development of a European credit system for vocational education and training (ECVET) confirms the uptake of ECVET in Europe in strategic terms, but also reveals a landscape of multiple players and perspectives that are attached to credit systems in VET in Europe. The report relates ECVET to learning outcomes approach, validation, education and training standards and regulations, and the development of qualifications frameworks. It also looks at the changing roles of different stakeholders, from qualifications authorities to social partners and training providers

CEDEFOP Research Paper n. 5 - Linking credit systems and qualifications frameworks. An international comparative analysis (2010)
This study reviews the development of those tools in the context of the Copenhagen and the Bologna processes (ECVET, ECTS, EQF-LLL, EHEA-QF) and across a sample of European and non-European countries (Australia, Finland, France, Germany, Scotland, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, the UK-EWNI (England, Wales and Northern Ireland) and the UK-Scotland. It analyses development initiatives and reforms of credit systems and qualifications frameworks. The articulation between both tools reveals difficulties and opportunities. This analysis leads to grounded insights in the functioning of credits systems and qualifications frameworks concerning learning pathways (transfer and progression), governance of education and training systems, and qualifications policies, especially qualification designs and awarding procedures.

CEDEFOP - European guidelines for validating non-formal and informal learning (2009)
This publication presents the conclusions of more than two years of intensive exchange of experiences - involving representatives from more than 20 European countries - in validating non-formal and informal learning. The main objective is to make the outcomes of this common learning process available to a wider audience to support further development of validation of non-formal and informal learning at European, national and local levels

CEDEFOP - The shift to learning outcomes. Policies and practices in Europe (2009)
This study addresses the shift towards learning outcomes currently taking place in European education and training policies and practices. At European level, launching the European qualifications framework (EQF) and the European credit system for vocational education and training (ECVET) has put learning outcomes firmly on the political agenda. At national level the rapid development of national qualifications frameworks (NQF) points in the same direction. These developments have been captured in detail in this comparative study analysing the developments in the 32 countries taking part in the Education and training 2010 process. The study covers all the different subsectors of education and training – general, vocational and higher education – and is the first attempt to provide a complete overview of developments in this field.

CEDEFOP - The shift to learning outcomes. Conceptual, political and practical developments in Europe (2008)
This booklet, which is an extract of an extensive comparative study conducted by Cedefop in 2007, analyses the influence of the learning approach in 32 European countries

CEDEFOP European journal of vocational training - No 48 - 2009/3
This issue of the European Journal of Vocational Training contains both a thematic dossier and articles dealing with broader issues. The thematic dossier is dedicated to assessment, recognition and certification of non-formal and informal learning. Validation of learning outcomes is one of the core subjects in European VET policies. It is key in ensuring not only mobility and permeability in education and training but also individuals’ employability and recognition in the labour market of the full set of knowledge, skills and competences they possess, including those acquired through informal and experiential learning.

CEDEFOP European Journal of Vocational Training - No 42/43 - 2007/3 2008/1
The 14 articles featured in this special edition on the European Qualifications Framework were written between August 2005 and June 2007, i.e. when the Recommendation on the establishment of the European Qualifications Framework for lifelong learning (EQF), proposed by the Commission in September 2006 was still in the drafting and discussion phase; in fact, the European Parliament only adopted the recommendation on 24 October 2007. The text then became the subject of a political agreement at the Council on 15 November 2007, which represented the culmination of three years’ preparatory work. The opening of the conference on ‘Valuing learning: European experiences in validating non-formal and informal learning’, held in Lisbon from 26 to 27 November 2007 under the auspices of the Portuguese Presidency of the EU, provided the ideal platform for Mr Ján Figel, the Commissioner for Education, Training, Culture and Youth, to announce the agreement. At the time of going to press (7 January 2008), the EQF had still not been formally adopted but this was expected to happen early in the new year.

CEDEFOP - Validation of non-formal and informal learning in Europe. A snapshot 2007 (2008)
This report provides a brief introduction to and update of European developments in this important subject. Building on the extensive 2007 update of the European inventory on validation of non-formal and informal learning, the report captures some of the main trends in this field and outlines the main challenges facing us in validating non-formal and informal learning in the coming years

The ECVET Reflector Study (2007)
The ECVET Reflector Study was carried on behalf of the European Commission between December 2005 and February 2007, shortly before the ECVET consultation phase. The study mandate was to analyse the relationships between the characteristics of the European Credit system for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET), as proposed by the European Commission in its consultation document, and the existing regulations and practices of assessment, validation and certification as well as accumulation and transfer of learning outcomes in the national VET and qualification systems in Europe. The reflector study evaluates both the status quo and the dynamics revealed by VET and qualification systems to identify both synergy effects and obstacles which may occur while introducing ECVET.
- Findings of the ECVET Reflector Study [EN]

ECVET Connexion. Study on the feasibility of an ECVET System for Apprentices - test phase (2007)
The study aims at analysing the IVET system in Europe from the angle of the training offer (nature, organisation, programs, offer delivering and at identifying the obstacles to the implementation of the proposed ECVET mechanism; and to formulate recommendations favouring its development
- Executive Summary [EN]
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Sintesi [IT]